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Programmes

Sudan

In February 2003, an armed group seized the small town of Gulu (North Darfur), thus initiating a cycle of fighting and bloody repression. More than ten years later, the Darfur crisis continues with no solution to the conflict in sight. The fragmentation of parties involved and increasingly complex issues cause new clashes, while operating conditions for humanitarian actors are deteriorating.

Triangle Génération Humanitaire started its activities in West Darfur in June 2004, with an assistance programme for IDPs in the camp of Ryad on the outskirts of the town of El Geneina.

Afterwards, despite access constraints, Triangle Génération Humanitaire expanded its scope of intervention outside the big cities where much of the humanitarian aid quickly concentrated. Between 2005 and 2006, TGH started to work in rural areas around El Geneina and in the isolated villages of Bindizi, Mukjar, Um Dukhun and Zalingei, where many IDPs also live.

The organization is still operating in those places today, where it continues to implement programmes in the water, hygiene and sanitation and food security sectors, while maintaining the ability to meet new humanitarian needs (shelter, water, food, basic household items), especially those of displaced populations.
Besides, TGH is also increasingly involved in enhancing livelihoods and in the so-called cash-based approach, which provides greater freedom of choice to the beneficiaries, while stimulating first and foremost the local economy.

Throughout its operations, the organization has developed an approach halfway between emergency and development, by organizing the transfer of skills and responsibilities to local actors in order to enable them to provide and sustainably manage basic services.

Current programmes

Between emergency and development, supporting the populations affected by the crisis in Darfur

To date, the crisis that has been affecting Darfur for more than ten years, although no longer as intense as in the first years, still has no serious prospect of a durable solution. Parties to the conflict have long been fragmented into variably represented factions, and the various political agreements have had little positive impact on the reality observed in the field.

This lack of perspective maintains displaced populations in a situation of need, and requires the maintenance of basic services. Ten years of crisis have led to the implementation by the beneficiaries of various coping mechanisms, which, even if they are unevenly and diversely distributed, direct aid towards a new approach, which promotes greater involvement of the various local actors and guarantees greater sustainability of services provided.
End 2013, TGH obtained a first multiannual funding for development (European Union) to strengthen and deepen this approach. This marked a turning point in the NGO’s intervention in Darfur.

In this uncertain environment, local resilience capacities must be supported so that aid beneficiaries can concretely and materially contribute to it. In this perspective, TGH adapted its intervention in Darfur by further involving communities and local authorities and improving their resilience and response capacities to shocks. In recent years, TGH thus engaged in activities within an approach favouring the transition from emergency to development, as evidenced by the various ongoing projects.

Besides, the new dynamics of the conflict in Darfur, especially the multiplication of clashes among Arab tribes since early 2013, in the shadow of a global economic crisis and increased competition for resources, require the maintenance of evaluation and humanitarian emergency response capacities. TGH is thus currently one of the few NGOs working in Central Darfur (Um Dukhun and Bindizi areas) to assist the victims of the conflict between Misseriya and Salamat tribes. Concurrently, the relative improvement in the security situation in some areas, combined with the desire of the Chadian authorities to close some Sudanese refugee camps in Chad, caused the return of thousands of refugees, particularly in the Um Dukhun area. More than 80,000 people returned to Um Dukhun between 2014 and the end of 2016. These population movements create new urgent needs (access to water, sanitation, emergency shelter, etc.). TGH wishes to meet them, accompanying the waves of newly returned.

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Towards the mitigation of the negative effects of El Niño on the food insecurity and livelihoods of vulnerable populations in Darfur

In order to mitigate the negative impacts caused by the El Niño phenomenon, TGH is working in various sectors to reduce community tensions, mainly between livestock breeders and farmers, related to drought and pasture depletion.

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 Area of expertise

Agro-Secu-Alimentaire

 Key figures

 Beneficiaries: 37,625 people
 Duration: 9 months 09/16 - 05/17
 Budget: K€300

 Funding

Logo MAE
  • Funding: Inter-ministerial Food Aid Committee CIAA
  • Partner: Ministry of Agriculture, National Forestry Corporation, Bindizi Peace Committee (involved in the implementation of the action)
  • Number of beneficiaries: 37,625 people

TGH proposes a global action aiming at overcoming tensions between communities and farmers and breeders, exacerbated by competition over natural resources, impoverishment of water resources and scarcity of pastures.

Household's food situation, agricultural crops, rainfall and local market prices are monitored on a regular basis to better anticipate the risks associated with these indicators.
TGH also supports Bindizi's Peace Committee, responsible for minimizing usage conflicts (mainly conflicts between transhumant pastoralists and the local population).
The serious nutritional problems still present in the region are also addressed through the distribution of market gardening seeds and support for the creation of "home gardens" to improve food security and food diversification. In parallel, awareness-raising sessions are organized on good food practices for a better knowledge of the nutritional impact of foods consumed by households, accompanied by suggestions of recipes and ways of cooking local products that are not well known.

TGH thus develops a global approach to households’ food and nutritional problems, supplemented by the distribution of means of transport (donkey carts) to overcome the difficulties faced by the most vulnerable farmers in transporting their production. TGH is setting up a model farm in order to meet the needs for strengthened agricultural techniques.
This programme directly supports households, helps improve the resilience capacity of farmers, and indirectly benefits all the populations of the targeted areas, as it allows greater accessibility to agricultural products.

The setting-up and strengthening of the emergency assistance provided to returning refugee and displaced populations in the water, hygiene and sanitation sector – town of Um Dukhun (Central Darfur)

TGH is strengthening its emergency response in the water, hygiene and sanitation sector in order to meet the growing needs of returning refugee and displaced populations in the town of Um Dukhun.

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 Area of expertise

Wash

 Key figures

 Beneficiaries: 87,681 people
 Duration: 12 months 01/05/16 - 30/04/17
 Budget: $ 241,369

 Funding

Logo CHF
  • Funding: Common Humanitarian Fund (CHF)
  • Number of beneficiaries: 87,681 people

The peace agreement between Salamat and Misseriya tribes signed in June 2014 and the closing of the Abu Gadam camp by the Chadian government has caused in the town of Um Dukhun an unprecedented influx of people exiled in Chad or internally displaced in South Darfur, returning to settle close to their original places of residence. The first arrivals occurred in early 2015, but the flow of people grew rapidly, doubling the population of the town. TGH started to provide emergency assistance at the time of the first arrivals in Moradaf in 2015, but the situation became critical, requiring new funding to ensure an effective and comprehensive emergency response in the water, hygiene and sanitation sector.

In partnership with the Sudanese authorities, especially those involved in this area of ​​intervention, TGH developed an integrated response that includes the establishment of new emergency water supply systems, the installation of emergency latrines, the distribution of soap, mosquito nets and hygiene kits and awareness-raising sessions for the population on basic hygiene practices. TGH plans to complete its response through strengthening the activities already implemented in 2013-2014 in support of the displaced people settled in Kabar, Begayra-Shayla, Magan, and Salaly and Umfrout, renovating the emergency water supply systems and ensuring that people have access to water throughout the targeted communities.

Strengthen the emergency response, risk mitigation, and resilience of the most vulnerable populations in the states of Central Darfur and West Darfur

In order to cope with massive population displacements, TGH has chosen to develop an emergency response together with an action aiming to improve the resilience of populations to enable them to better cope in the event of new shocks.

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 Area of expertise

Multisecteur

 Key figures

 Beneficiaries: 231,340 people
 Duration: 11 months 01/04/16 - 01/03/17
 Budget: € 1,650,000

 Funding

Logo ECHO
  • Funding: ECHO
  • Number of beneficiaries: 231,340 people
  • Partners: Al Massar Charity Organization

The capacity to implement an emergency response in Darfur is diminished because of reduced humanitarian means, and the number of displaced people not receiving any assistance despite their very precarious living conditions is increasing. In this context, TGH, which has been present in Darfur for many years, wanted to develop a new program aiming to increase the capacity to anticipate, set-up and implement an emergency response in the two states where it operates, Central Darfur and West Darfur.

This response is primarily based on the pre-positioning of emergency stocks in the following sectors: water hygiene and sanitation, distribution of basic non-food items, and construction of emergency shelters. In case of need, these stocks will enable to develop a quick response, having the equipment ready for use and directly available where the beneficiaries are. This response is also based on the training of the field staff and mobilization of community members, to make sure they have the right skills to respond in a fast and effective manner. Finally, this response includes the preparation of a contingency plan and the monitoring of natural events and population movements, in order to conduct rapid assessments and provide assistance in collaboration with all the actors at local, state and federal levels.

The program will pre-position 500 kits containing basic non-food items, aiming to improve the living conditions of the most vulnerable households in the event of a natural disaster or the arrival of new populations. The kits provided to families who have already been displaced for quite a while in the target area will also be updated in order to keep providing an assistance tailored to their needs.
Regarding the water, hygiene and sanitation component, the program will also pre-position basic hygiene kits before the start of the rainy season, and strengthen existing infrastructure as well as the capacity of communities to maintain them. The setting up of an emergency response to ensure access to water and basic sanitation to displaced people is also part of the action.
In order to offset the declining of agricultural productivity due to the El Nino phenomenon and the increase in population, TGH will provide agricultural inputs to most vulnerable farmers to restore their production capacity and improve their resilience in the long run, enabling them to feed their families and the communities around them. Concurrently, TGH will carry out emergency food distributions to support the most vulnerable households who are not able to access food by other means.

Provision of non-food items and emergency shelters to vulnerable populations in Central Darfur

This project aims to distribute non-food items to previously identified populations in the towns of Bindizi, Mukjar and Um Dukhun in Central Darfur.

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 Area of expertise

 Non-food items (NFIs)

 Key figures

 Beneficiaries: 32,869 people
 Duration: 13 months 12/2015 - 01/2017
 Budget: $148,113

 Funding

OCHA
  • Funding: Common Humanitarian Fund (CHF)
  • Number of beneficiaries: 32,869 people

In recent years, the conflicts in Darfur resulted in major population movements within the country but also towards other countries, including Chad. The situation calmed-down in this area, and today these families are returning. In Bindizi, Mukjar and Um Dukhun, they live side by side with the internally displaced populations who sought shelter in these towns.

Assessments carried-out in those areas highlighted significant needs for essential items (cans to collect water, blankets and clothes). Distribution of non-food items and emergency shelters will prepare the households living in Central Darfur to deal with various emergencies. This program complements a distribution carried-out in 2014 to rebuild the stocks that had been deteriorated in some households, and build-up new stocks for the households who had recently arrived in the targeted areas.

Towards improved Food Security and Livelihoods within conflict-affected communities of Central Darfur

Overall, the action strives to support Food Security by enhancing vulnerable smallholders’ capacities to produce and access food in a context of absence of development investment schemes in Darfur.

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 Area of expertise

Agro-Secu-Alimentaire

 Key figures

 Beneficiaries: 40 000 people
 Duration: 36 months 01/2015 – 01/2018
 Budget: €1,250,000

 Funding

Logo EuropeAid-commission-europeenne
  • Funding: EuropeAid contribution: €1,000,000
  • Number of beneficiaries: 40 000 rural farmers of the Bindizi area

More specifically, the action aims to contribute to increasing and diversifying sources of food and income, thus improving nutrition and Food Security.

TGH started to implement assistance programs in Darfur in early 2004 and has been working specifically in Bindizi since 2005, where it was and remains the only operating INGO.

Regarding the insecure context in these rural areas, on the one hand, an armed conflict between the Arab Tribes of Misseriya and Salamat led to a significant number of IDPs seeking asylum in 2013. Although a peace agreement between warring tribes was settled in November 2013, punctual fighting and population displacement resumed in 2014. On the second hand, Central Darfur is prone to natural disasters, notably drought, seasonal flood and epidemic outbreaks.

In addition, agriculture is the main food and/or cash generating activity in Bindizi area (Central Darfur, Sudan). Many households restored livelihoods in their new place of living thanks to the large-scale humanitarian assistance from which Darfur has benefited over the past ten years. However, livelihoods remain fragile; indeed, besides insecurity which limits the access to the fields, the production of staple food is subject to significant variations, due to the destruction of crops by herds, erratic rainfall, pests and crop diseases and the loss of crops before and after the harvest. On the whole, many IDPs remain in a situation of vulnerability for lack of sufficient access to land or alternative livelihoods. Winter cultivation remains poorly developed in spite of a clear potential for development. Similarly, alternative food-related livelihoods are low developed, mainly limited to a few beekeeping activities.

In order to maximize project activities' impact and effectiveness, the upcoming action will exclusively focus on the locality of Bindizi in Central Darfur. It will target the population living in Bindizi town, camp and in the 36 surrounding damras (small nomadic villages). This population is composed of 42% of IDPs from African tribes that have settled in the area afterwards the 2003 conflict, 24% of returnees, 24% of nomads and 10% of host people. More specifically, farming is the principal source of income for more than 95% of the population permanently settled in those areas.

The action draws on a continuous analysis of the FSL (Food Security and Livelihoods) situation in the target area, and on a large range of lessons learnt due to its longstanding experience of programming in the target area. Indeed, TGH has already worked for and with these farmers in the past, and has ensured a continuous collection of data through yearly surveys, during which households have been consulted about their constraints, needs and expectations. Moreover, TGH's Food Security interventions in targeted areas progressively shifted from an emergency rationale towards a more "development-oriented" approach which aims at Linking Relief, Rehabilitation and Development (LRRD).

Local authorities, and in particular representatives of the Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Resources and Irrigation (MoAAR), will be closely associated to the action and have previously striven for mainstreaming the fostering of development including through relief programs, although they are not formally associated to the action as co-applicant.

The action has just begun on January 1st, 2015 and is planned over 36 months, which will cover two rain fed and three winter cultivation seasons. It includes an inception phase which will enable TGH to update the action.

Actions carried out will mainly focus on the two following areas:

  • The production of food will be increased and diversified.

Firstly, the production capacities for staple food will be strengthened through increasingly resorting to adapted seeds and intercropping, enlarging cultivation periods, reducing pre and post harvest losses and improving access to better production means. Secondly, in order to contribute to food diversification, the cultivation of vegetables will be extended to a larger number of households including through home gardening.

  • The most vulnerable households will benefit from increased sources of income and livelihood opportunities.

First of all, a twofold income source will be provided to the most vulnerable households (cash assistance and public works). Then, a sensitization on Key Family Practices (KFP) will complement this action in order to enable them to face recurrent food shortages and to reduce malnutrition. Besides, livelihood opportunities will be developed by providing vocational training along with in-kind production means.

Enhancing the contribution of local actors to sustainable development and to the achievement of MDGs

In recent years, TGH got involved in activities aimed at making beneficiary populations progressively more autonomous in the sectors of water, hygiene and sanitation and food security.

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 Area of expertise

Wash Agro-Secu-Alimentaire

 Key figures

 Beneficiaries: 91 000 people
 Duration: 36 months 01/2014 - 01/2017
 Budget: €797,000

 Funding

Logo EuropeAid-commission-europeenne Fonds SUEZ initiatives
  • Funding: European Commission - Development & Cooperation – EuropeAid - Fonds SUEZ initiatives
  • Beneficiaries: 91 000 persons – the entire population of Bindizi and Um Dukhun towns (Central Darfur), 12 agents from the WES and 120 members of water committees (out of which 40% of women)

Progress made due to a constant presence in Darfur since 2003 and to this strategy helped initiate the transition from emergency to development. In terms of water, hygiene and sanitation, this transition has led to the deployment of the authority in charge of this sector in remote areas in Darfur, and to the transfer of responsibilities in terms of management. Sustainable water points have been established under the supervision of community water management committees, in charge of daily management and fee collection. TGH maintains its presence in Darfur and its awareness-raising efforts to sustain its strategy, which is now accepted by both communities and local authorities.

Water Committee meeting, Um Dukhun (November 2014)
Photos : TGH National Staff ©

Training on Operation & Maintenance on mechanized points, Bindizi (September 25th to 27th, 2014),
Photos : TGH National Staff ©

End of the Training on Operation & Maintenance picture, Bindizi (September 25th to 27th, 2014)
Photos : TGH National Staff ©

PHAST training in Um Dukhun (January 8 to 11, 2015),
Photos : TGH National Staff ©

Water Committee meeting, Um Dukhun (November 2014)
Photos : TGH National Staff ©

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This multi-year programme is intended to sustain and expand access to water and sanitation by strengthening the capacity of local actors and through community involvement.

Representatives of the WES (Water and Environmental Sanitation) will have their technical and organizational skills strengthened through training, and will be responsible for the management of stores providing maintenance equipment. Water management committees have been created, in direct link with the WES, in order to intervene in the development and support to community social initiatives. Subsequently, training sessions have been carried out, including on organizational management and human resources management, for WES and the water management committees. Continuous monitoring is carried out with the teams in order to provide support if necessary. Finally, communities have been sensitized on the importance of good hygiene practices and the role they play in social development.

 

Completed Programmes

Emergency response in the water, hygiene and sanitation sector, to support returnees in Moradaf, Garaia and Beltebei, city of Um Dukhun, Central Darfur

The influx of people going back to settle in their villages of origin in the city of Um Dukhun deteriorates the already weak access conditions to water, hygiene and sanitation in this area. TGH contributes to improving access to safe drinking water and improved hygiene conditions for displaced.

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 Area of expertise

Wash

 Key figures

 Beneficiaries: 68,931 people
 Duration: 4 months 17/04/16 - 16/08/16
 Budget: USD 245,092

 Funding

USAID
  • Funding: OFDA funds channeled through the International Organization for Migration (IOM) via the Rapid Response Fund for Sudan (RRF)
  • Number of beneficiaries: 68,931 people including 62,669 people who have returned to the intervention area and 6,262 displaced persons already settled in the area of intervention
  • Partners: Sudan's Department of Water, Environment and Sanitation (WES)

Since the beginning of 2016, the city of Um Dukhun has been facing massive flows of refugee populations fleeing conflicts between Salamat, Misseriya and Teisha tribes coming from Chad or temporarily displaced in Darfur. The peace agreement signed on June 24th, 2014 led to an improvement in the security situation and to the closing of some camps, and prompted people to move back to the villages they fled in 2013/2014. Thus, massive population flows have been observed from the beginning of 2015, and the number of forecasted returns is increasing for the year 2016. These massive arrivals destabilized an already precarious situation in the villages of the city of Um Dukhun. Regarding the water, hygiene and sanitation sector, the already limited amount of available drinking water per person is further shrinking. The populations rely on poorly maintained hand pumps that they need to share to get water supplies. Hygiene conditions are also generally low, and diseases spread easily, especially because of the lack of infrastructure (latrines) and basic hygiene products.

In order to meet the urgent needs of the populations in this area, the program is divided into three parts:

  1. Improve access to drinking water through the installation and use of 4 emergency water systems, and repair and ensure the maintenance of two hand pumps.
  2. Improve populations' sanitary conditions through the installation of 655 emergency latrines.
  3. Improve the health of populations through the promotion of basic hygiene principles, via the organization of thematic events, the creation of hygiene promotion centers, and the distribution of soap, hygiene kits and treated mosquito nets to the populations.

Distribution of WASH items, Moradaf, Central Darfur, Sudan, February 2016
Photos : TGH ©

Hygiene promotion session, Moradaf, Central Darfur, Sudan, February 2016
Photos : TGH ©

Latrines installed by households, Moradaf, Central Darfur, Sudan, March 2016
Photos : TGH ©

Distribution of WASH items, Moradaf, Central Darfur, Sudan, February 2016
Photos : TGH ©

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Maintain and strengthen Water, Hygiene and Sanitation services for displaced populations affected by conflicts in the town of Um Dukhun in Central Darfur

This project carried-out in the town of Um Dukhun (Central Darfur) aims to increase access to water and sanitation facilities and to improve the hygiene practices of internally displaced people affected by recurrent inter-tribal conflicts.

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 Area of expertise

Wash

 Key figures

 Beneficiaries: 51,539 people
 Duration: 12 months 05/2015 - 04/2016
 Budget: $220,398

 Funding

OCHA
  • Funding: Common Humanitarian Fund (CHF)
  • Number of beneficiaries: 51,539 people

The town of Um Dukhun, located in the state of Central Darfur, was once the scene of many clashes between the Misseriya and Salamat tribes, which resulted in massive displacements of populations. Significant movements are currently taking place, including populations returning to their villages after having fled to Chad, and internally displaced people seeking refuge in the camps of Um Dukhun. These movements also affect host populations, who have seen their living conditions deteriorate in recent years.
Several evaluations have revealed significant needs, particularly in the water, hygiene and sanitation sector. The bad condition of many water points forces people to use the water of unhealthy rivers. Moreover, the lack of latrines leads to open defecation, which, coupled with approximate hygiene practices, results in the spreading of various diseases particularly affecting children.

The action of TGH focuses on the following areas:

  1. Improved access to water through the rehabilitation of existing water points and construction of new water points in the various camps located in the town of Um Dukhun. Training on the maintenance of these water points will be conducted with workers belonging to the local water management agency. They will be in charge of the management of these water points in order to ensure their sustainability. Regular water quality checks will be organized, and if necessary, chlorine treatments will be carried-out.
  2. Strengthening of good hygiene practices through the installation of 500 communal latrines, with community participation (unless impossible), and using local materials. In a second step, cleaning campaigns will be organized, along with awareness-raising campaigns on hygiene practices (use of latrines, hand washing, water conservation, waste management ...). TGH will rely on the participation of 15 volunteer women belonging to the different communities, who will be trained and who will take the ownership of the various messages, thus being able to better convey them.

Supporting food security and the resilience capacity of displaced populations in the towns of Mukjar and Um Dukhun in Central Darfur

This project aims to improve food security and enhance the resilience capacities of displaced populations through the distribution of seeds and the provision of technical support.

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 Area of expertise

Agro-Secu-Alimentaire

 Key figures

 Beneficiaries: 26,666 people
 Duration: 12 months 05/2015 - 04/2016
 Budget: $308,792

 Funding

OCHA
  • Funding: Common Humanitarian Fund (CHF)
  • Number of beneficiaries: 26,666 people
  • Partners:
    • Al Massar (local NGO)
    • Al Fajir (local NGO)

The populations currently present in Central Darfur, partly because of the recent conflicts, are having a hard time maintaining their agricultural production capacity. Consequently they are facing high food insecurity, and an increasing number of cases of malnutrition - especially among young children and pregnant and lactating women – have been identified. Pre-harvest food safety surveys conducted by TGH in its areas of operation highlighted food self-sufficiency for less than 6 months on average for these households. The most vulnerable families rely on their relatives during lean periods to supplement their diet.

The program conducted by TGH targets the most vulnerable households among the displaced and host populations, and pays particular attention to households with a sick person, unaccompanied minors, or headed by a lone parent. The beneficiaries will receive agricultural seeds for the rain and winter seasons, as well as donkey plows. The most vulnerable households, particularly those headed by a lone-parent mother, will receive irrigation pumps and will be trained to be able to cultivate their land themselves and achieve food self-sufficiency.

TGH will ensure the follow up of beneficiary households and make recommendations, when necessary, with regard to agricultural practices.

Towards reduced risks of malnutrition among vulnerable communities in Darfur

With this program, TGH contributes to improving access to foodstuffs for the most vulnerable households in Darfur.

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 Area of expertise

Agro-Secu-Alimentaire

 Key figures

 Beneficiaries: 3,786 households
 Duration: 2 months 12/2015 - 01/2016
 Budget: € 50,288

 Funding

ICRC
  • Funding: The International Committee of the Red Cross
  • Number of beneficiaries: 3,786 households
  • Partners:
    • Ministry of Agriculture
    • Youth association in Bindizi
    • Peace Committee in Bindizi

This program is based on a survey conducted by TGH in October 2014 in its intervention areas, which highlighted improved food security thanks to favorable external factors and to the choice of diversification favoring non-cereal rainfed crops (vegetables and peanuts) or short cycle cereal species. These choices have allowed both an increase in agricultural production and, consequently, self-supply and an increase in household income through crop sales. TGH perseveres in this direction in order to promote long-term food security in the target areas.

This program is supported by the International Committee of the Red Cross through the donation of agricultural seeds that will be used for:

  • The establishment of safety nets during the lean season, which will limit the impact of rising food prices and of lack of family reserves on the nutritional status of target households. TGH will thus organize the distribution of food stamps covering the fixed period of time (2 months), combined with awareness-raising activities on Key Family Practices in Bindizi. TGH is the only organization conducting such awareness-raising activities, which aim to promote the daily practices that help prevent malnutrition.
  • The strengthening of the productive capacities of target families, which will help address the causes of food insecurity and malnutrition. In order to reduce the recurring cases of malnutrition (severe and moderate) among children under 2 and pregnant and lactating women, households will benefit from a distribution of agricultural seeds adapted to their needs and capacities. Families will receive stamps of higher value than the stamps provided by TGH in other more general programs, in order to exchange them on seed fairs and obtain sufficient seeds for their own consumption and for cash crop. This will cover the food needs of the targeted families for a period of minimum 3 months (longer than the traditional lean period).

Towards malnutrition risk reduction among at-risk vulnerable communities in Darfur

This project aims to contribute to increasing and diversifying sources of food and income. The action will thus focus on improving the nutrition of the people at risk it specifically targets.

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 Area of expertise

Agro-Secu-Alimentaire

 Key figures

 Beneficiaries: 18,168 people
 Duration: 10 months 05/2015 – 02/2016
 Budget: €250,000

 Funding

Logo MAE
  • Funding: CIAA (Interministerial Committee for Food Aid)
  • Number of beneficiaries: 18,168 people
  • Partners:
    • Ministry of Agriculture
    • Youth Association in Bindizi
    • Peace Committee in Bindizi

If an improvement was observed in the food situation in Sudan over the past two years, the persistence of ethnic conflicts, the presence of armed militias and the traditional divide between farmers and herders limit the possibilities of improving security conditions and thus the food situation of the inhabitants, the latter being largely dependent on a secure land use.

However, despite this noticeable improvement, the food situation in Darfur remains a concern for a vast majority of families who remain in precarious conditions with no prospect of lasting improvement, while humanitarian intervention is faltering, along with the withdrawal of humanitarian organizations and the reduction of available funding. In a general context of declining aid, Darfur draws less attention from donors, who turn to other international crises, and the number of humanitarian actors in Darfur continues to decline.

This project is based on a survey conducted by TGH in October 2014 in its intervention areas, highlighting improved food security thanks to favorable external factors but also to operative choices such as a diversification effort by TGH favoring non-cereal rainfed crops (vegetables, peanuts) or short-cycle grain species. These choices have allowed an increase in agricultural production enabling both consumption and an increase in household income through the sale of crops. Through this project, TGH perseveres with a view to promote long-term food security in the target areas.

Previous projects carried-out by TGH increased the productive capacity of the most vulnerable farmers, helping them diversify their productions through the promotion of early maturing seeds, having both an impact on food availability and on early cash availability.

The following project is divided into several parts:

  • It was originally planned to distribute food vouchers during the lean period, but it was finally decided to carry-out direct distribution of food aid in kind. Indeed, the scattering of the beneficiaries over a vast geographical area made the voucher distribution process too long and therefore unsafe (fraud risk). Furthermore, not all beneficiaries were able to bear the transport costs to exchange their vouchers against food items. In Bindzi, this action has been combined with an awareness-raising session on Key Family Practices, in order to encourage the daily practices that help prevent malnutrition. This is a pilot intervention in this town, as no organization is currently responsible for carrying out this type of activity.

  • The strengthening of the productive capacities of targeted families will act on the causes of food insecurity and malnutrition that affect them. To reduce the number of recurring (moderate and severe) malnutrition cases among children under 2 and pregnant and lactating women, households will benefit from a distribution of agricultural inputs tailored to their needs and abilities. Seed fairs had originally been planned with prior distribution of vouchers exchangeable at these fairs, but the scattering of the beneficiaries over a vast geographical area made this solution inadequate. Therefore, TGH opted for the distribution of seeds directly to beneficiary households in different towns in Central and Western Darfur during the months of June and July 2015.

Emergency Preparedness and Response to Vulnerable Households Affected by Disasters in Darfur

Through this project, TGH aims to set up the necessary tools for a quick and adequate humanitarian response to disasters, whether natural or man-made, while facilitating access to water, hygiene and sanitation services as well as to basic non-food products.

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 Area of expertise

Wash

 Key figures

 Beneficiaries: 163,835 people
 Duration: 10 months 05/2015 – 03/2016
 Budget: €750,033

 Funding

Logo ECHO
  • Funding: ECHO
  • Number of beneficiaries: 163,835 people
  • Partner: Al Massar (local NGO)

This project is a continuation of the action TGH has been carrying out for over 10 years in Darfur. TGH's intervention strategy in Sudan is illustrated among others by a gradual withdrawal in the historic areas of intervention, coordinated with the involvement of the various actors already present locally, while maintaining a regular monitoring of populations access to basic services. The current action focuses on preparedness and response to emergencies rather recurrent in this region of Sudan, whether of natural or anthropogenic origin. Besides, TGH proposes in this programme to extend its activities to new areas confronted with the arrival of internally displaced populations. Humanitarian presence has been greatly reduced in certain areas such as Foro Boranga and Zalingei, with many consequences, including in terms of water, hygiene and sanitation. Faced with the influx of IDPs, it is necessary to increase humanitarian support to improve their living conditions and facilitate their integration into the local community. Besides, in the areas targeted by this project, the lack of community management is currently preventing populations from coping with crises.

Initially, a contingency plan has been established at State level with the support of local authorities and humanitarian actors present in the territory. This contingency plan follows the plans developed for the localities of Bindizi and Um Dukhun, and aims to bring a harmonized response throughout the territory. An emergency stock, replenished if necessary, will be set up to cover the needs of 20,000 people throughout the project.

A fifteen days assessment will be carried-out after each disaster to best meet the needs of affected populations. Access to drinking water will be provided to targeted areas, and emergency latrines and traditional latrines will be distributed to ensure better sanitary conditions for internally displaced populations.

In times of crisis, non-food items will be distributed to vulnerable populations. In ordre to implement this activity, a safety stock will be built up, and distributions will be carried-out after a quick assessment of the needs of people affected by disasters. Furthermore, an additional distribution will target people with specific needs, in order to best meet these needs.

Improving access to safe drinking water, sanitation facilities and hygiene practices for vulnerable people in Darfur.

This programme aims to provide vulnerable populations with sustainable access to safe drinking water and sanitation infrastructures, as well as to strengthen the capacity of local actors and increase their involvement in the proper management of these infrastructures.

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 Area of expertise

Wash

 Key figures

 Beneficiaries: 224,120 people
 Duration: 20 months 05/2014 – 12/2015
 Budget: USD 611,000

 Funding

UNICEF
  • Main funding: UNICEF
  • Partners: Sudanese Water, Environment and Sanitation Department (WES)
  • Number of beneficiaries: 224,120 people (50,637 men + 51,164 women + 122,319 children)

This programme complements an action currently implemented by TGH with the financial support of EuropeAid in Central Darfur, in Bindizi and Um Dukhun. It continues and expands the Water Hygiene and Sanitation (WHS) activities carried out by TGH in West Darfur and Central Darfur, integrating two new areas of intervention in West Darfur: the city of Foroboranga and five villages neighbouring Geneina. This action mainly targets internally displaced people, returnees and other groups affected by the conflict. Special attention is paid to the most vulnerable, who have little or no access to water and sanitation infrastructures, and to children in general.

Four main areas make up this programme: access to clean drinking water, sanitation, management of water and sanitation infrastructures, and promotion of good hygiene practices.

Enfant-buvant-eau-pompe-reparee-village-de-Cessi

Child drinking water from a pump that has just been repaired in the village of Cessi
Photo : Paz Lopez-Rey / TGH ©

Forage-latrines-village-de-Cessi

Digging of latrines in the village of Cessi
Photo : Paz Lopez-Rey / TGH ©

Regarding access to drinking water and sanitation, the objective is to meet the urgent needs of the people newly displaced in the region of Central Darfur, and to provide an emergency response (construction and rehabilitation of water points, construction of latrines, etc.) to the water and sanitation needs of the displaced people, returnees and host communities in the West Darfur area
The activities already implemented in Bindizi, Um Dukhun and Geneina helped achieve or exceed SPHERE standards in water and sanitation (more than twelve liters of drinking water per person are now available). However, the mass influx of newly displaced people has increased populations' needs, requiring the installation of new pumps and new wells. The new intervention areas (Foroboranga and five rural villages surrounding Geneina) are facing a critical situation with SPHERE standards far from being achieved (less than one liter of drinking water available per person for the village of Galo, for example). Additionally; TGH wants to establish a Community Approach for Total Sanitation (CATS) to put an end to open defecation, the source of many diseases such as diarrhea and cholera.

The programme also plans to encourage local populations to take part in the water and sanitation infrastructure management project. With growing support from the Sudanese Water, Environment and Sanitation Department (WES), water point management committees have been established, training sessions for maintenance technicians have been organized, and a pricing system for the sustainable running of water points has been created. This programme will replicate these positive results in Central Darfur in the new areas of intervention.

Finally, the promotion of good hygiene practices, an essential component of this programme will be based on awareness-raising activities targeting the most vulnerable (women and children) to make them understand the link between hygiene practices and social development.

Exercice-groupe-formation-comites-gestion-eau

Group exercise during the training of the water management committees
Photo : Paz Lopez-Rey / TGH ©

Promotion-pratiques-hygiene-dans-ecoles

Promotion of hygiene practices in schools
Photo : Paz Lopez-Rey / TGH ©

Supporting vulnerable households in IDP camps in Darfur.

This programme aims to enable internally displaced people in Darfur to be better prepared to face potential emergency situations, and to provide them with access to water services, hygiene and sanitation, as well as to non-food commodities

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 Area of expertise

Wash

 Key figures

 Beneficiaries: 99, 600 people
 Duration: 11 months 05/2014 – 04/2015
 Budget: €552,119

 Funding

Logo ECHO
  • Main funding: ECHO
  • Partners: WES - Sudan's Department of Water and Sanitation
  • Number of beneficiaries: 99, 600 direct beneficiaries

This programme aims to meet the needs of vulnerable displaced populations in Darfur, particularly in the areas of Bindizi and Um Dukhun, where TGH has been working since 2005 and 2006. This project also aims to increase response capacities in Foro Boranga and Mukjar, areas located nearby, where WASH needs are important and humanitarian actors absent.
TGH, present in these areas for many years, maintains an operational team, essential to ensure quality services in terms of infrastructure, water, hygiene and sanitation, but also access to non-food commodities. Together with local actors, TGH faces any emergency (arrival of new IDPs, natural disaster, etc.) requiring the establishment of a specific device (distribution of non-food items, establishment of additional water points, etc.). Basic non-food items include mosquito nets and soap bars (essential for most vulnerable people such as pregnant women and children under five), and plastic sheeting to provide shelter and protection from difficult weather conditions in Darfur.

Distribution-baches-bidons-Bindizi-par-equipes-WES

Distribution of tarpaulins and jerry cans in Bindizi by WES teams
Photo : Paz Lopez-Rey / TGH ©

Distribution-baches-bidons-Bindizi-par-equipes-WES

Distribution of tarpaulins and jerry cans in Um Dukhun by WES teams
Photo : Paz Lopez-Rey / TGH ©

TGH will use the Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) approach to prepare local communities and authorities to respond adequately to new emergency situations. This approach applies, among others, to access to water, hygiene and sanitation, sectors in which TGH wants to improve local actors’ response capacity, currently fragile.
Capacity building will concern the main actors involved (local branches of the Humanitarian Affairs Commission (HAC), the Department of Water and Sanitation (WES) and Health authorities), providing them with technical, organizational and even financial and material support if necessary.

This programme is conducted in coordination with other NGOs on the ground, and with the UN agencies concerned..

Improving the resilience capacity of vulnerable populations in Darfur

The people of Darfur are facing chronic food insecurity, a situation that has recently been aggravated with the withdrawal of fuel subsidies, which led to an increase in prices and higher general insecurity

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 Area of expertise

Agro-Secu-Alimentaire

 Key figures

 Beneficiaries: 23, 672 people
 Duration: 12 months 08/2014 – 08/2015
 Budget: K€300

 Funding

Logo MAE
  • Main funding: Interministerial Committee for Food Aid (CIAA)
  • Partner: Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation (MoAI)

The programme designed by TGH aims to reduce the risk of malnutrition, diversify food sources and increase the production capacity of vulnerable families in Central Darfur and West Darfur.

In order to meet the identified needs, TGH has chosen to focus on the following areas of intervention:

  • Enhance the production capacities of families who have had very low or no grain production in 2013.
  • Contribute to the diversification of food production (vegetables, fruits, etc.): the dependence of households on agricultural production during the rainy season will be reduced, new income will be generated, and more varied food products will be available, allowing diet diversification and improved nutritional status.
  • Restore deteriorated agricultural land in the most vulnerable areas through the promotion of sustainable farming techniques increasing soil fertility and reducing the risk of disease.
  • Establish safety nets for the protection of vulnerable families at risk of malnutrition (single women, pregnant and lactating women, the elderly, disabled persons, children under five, etc.) during the lean period (higher prices for food grain in the months preceding the harvest).
Distribution-baches-bidons-Bindizi-par-equipes-WES

Direct distribution of vegetable seeds, tools and food coupons in Bindizi and surrounding villages
Photo : Paz Lopez-Rey / TGH ©

Distribution-baches-bidons-Bindizi-par-equipes-WES

Direct distribution of vegetable seeds, tools and food coupons in Bindizi and surrounding villages
Photo : Paz Lopez-Rey / TGH ©

The beneficiaries will be identified according to already established vulnerability criteria. Exchange of practices and technical training in crop growing will be organized for farmers, complemented by the distribution of means of transport (carts, wheelbarrows) and direct distribution of vegetable seeds and tools necessary for this production.
200 children suffering from severe malnutrition will receive special assistance through the distribution of food items to supplement their diet with essential nutrients.
These activities will be implemented through capacity building of TGH teams, local representatives of the Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation, and local health authorities, who will all be engaged throughout the project. A pre-harvest survey and ongoing monitoring of the action will help assess new needs and the project's impact on the existing identified needs.

Restore the livelihoods of displaced people, returnees and host communities

These two programmes, one supported by UNHCR and the other by CHF, aim to restore and improve the agricultural production capacities of vulnerable people.

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 Area of expertise

Agro-Secu-Alimentaire

 Key figures

 Beneficiaries: 47,757 people
 Duration: 12 months 04/2014 – 03/2015
 Budget: $ 287,125

 Funding

Logo UNHCR Logo CHF
  • Main funding: UNHCR (United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees): $ 43, 230 - CHF (Common Humanitarian Funds): $ 243, 895
  • Number of beneficiaries: UNHCR: 14,257 direct beneficiaries (+ 234, 560 indirect beneficiaries)
    CHF: 33,500 direct beneficiaries (+ 146 822 indirect beneficiaries)

In a highly unfavorable environment (poor rains, increased prices on food products and intertribal conflict), agricultural production decreases as food insecurity increases. Both programmes are planning to restore some autonomy for displaced persons, returnees, host communities and vulnerable people (women, children, the elderly, sick people, disabled persons, etc.), thanks to increased agricultural production, the primary source of income for the households living in the regions of Bindizi, Um Dukhun (Central Darfur) and Geneina (West Darfur).

Training on the use of natural fertilizers for crop growing around Geneina

Training on the use of natural fertilizers for crop growing around Geneina
Photo : Paz Lopez-Rey / TGH ©

TGH implements input distribution activities (seeds and agricultural tools) to the attention of target persons, via coupons they then exchange against kits prepared in advance by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) or on local markets to supplement the kits. TGH also organizes training on farming practices and technologies for better efficiency, to the attention of previously selected farmers with positive farming practices and working in areas accessible and visible to the community. Innovative farming techniques are proposed to them, tailored to each locality. Direct distributions of market garden seeds are also organized to the attention of vulnerable families, as well as training on the various techniques for the sustainable growing of these fruits and vegetables (prevention on the use of pesticides, use of compost, operational maintenance of irrigation pumps, etc.). In order to diversify the livelihoods of these populations, the programme, funded by UNHCR, also aims to identify different Income Generating Activities (IGA) together with the communities that will then be supported mainly through microcredit projects.

Furthermore, an additional component of the programme supported by UNHCR aims to provide non-food items meeting the basic needs of displaced persons, returnees, victims of natural disasters (frequent floods in Darfur) and most vulnerable households. Thus, TGH organizes the distribution of kits including clothes, mattresses, plastic sheeting, etc. Mosquito nets are also distributed in order to prevent diseases during the rainy season in particular, especially to pregnant women and children under five.

Both programmes also include the monitoring of the action and the follow-up of its impact through visits to beneficiaries, satisfaction surveys and studies (pre-harvest, rainfall, etc.) allowing the update of needs in terms of food security.

WASH emergency response for new IDPs and conflict-affected populations of Kabar, Amar Jadeed and Morlanga in Central Darfur State of Sudan

The action strives to provide sufficient clean water, adequate sanitation and basic hygiene standards to new IDPs, returnees and vulnerable host populations affected by the conflict in Morlanga, Amar Jajeed and Kabar in Central Darfur.

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 Area of expertise

Wash

 Key figures

 Beneficiaries: 36,104 people
 Duration: 3 months 02/2015 – 05/2015
 Budget: $ 226,889

 Funding

Logo USAID Logo IOM
  • Funding: Rapid Response Fund (RRF) Sudan, IOM
  • Number of beneficiaries: 36,104 IDPs, host people and returnees: among them 31,880 vulnerable IDPs (direct beneficiaries) and 4,224 host people and returnees (indirect beneficiaries)

Regarding the humanitarian situation in the field, conflicts between Misseriya and Salamat resumed in Um Dukhun locality in 2014, resulting in the displacement of more than 30,000 people (Salamat) between January and April 2014. Salamat IDPs settled in Kabar (Um Dukhun Locality), Morlanga and Amar Jadeed (Mukjar locality). Thereafter, the humanitarian response to these new IDPs has been hindered and delayed by several factors. For instance, on June 19th, 2014, fighting between the two tribes erupted again. Since then, TGH has been presented as the main and only partner in the WASH sector with the Water, Environment and Sanitation (WES, UNICEF fund) in these new IDP areas. Even though the situation has improved with the intervention of TGH and WES in September 2014 in Kabar, the water situation remains far below the standards (7 l/p/d). Likewise, the situation is alarming (0 l/p/d of safe water) in Morlanga and Amar Jadeed. The arrival of IPDs in February and April 2014 multiplied the initial population by 10. Therefore, WASH infrastructures have truly become insufficient for the overall population, and the access to WASH services for pre-existing IDPs has been restrained.

Bénéficiaires prenant de l'eau potable au point d’eau d’urgence

Beneficiaries taking safe water from Morlanga emergency water point (March 2015)
Photo : Staff National de TGH ©

Thus, the project will complement the first response carried out by WES and TGH and cover the WASH gaps caused by these emergencies. TGH knows Central Darfur well, and has previous experiences there, operating WASH programs since 2005 in the Bindizi, Um Dukhun and, more recently, Mukjar localities.

The action is carried out in order to support in total 36,104 IDPs, host people and returnees. Among them, 31,880 vulnerable IDPs present in the targeted locations of Central Darfur (Kabar, Amar Jadeed and Morlanga), that were displaced in April 2014 due to the armed conflict between the Misseriya and Salamat tribes. In addition, the 4,224 host people and returnees will also been taken into consideration.

The action just started on February 1st, 2015, and will last over 3 months.

Actions carried out will focus on the three following areas :

  • Access to sufficient clean water supply will be ensured for 29,600 new IDPs, host populations and returnees in the areas targeted by the project (12 l/p/d of safe water).

Water supply will be improved through rehabilitation (2 hand pumps; 5 open wells equipped with hand pumps), and construction activities (3 new wells), owing to the installation and operation of 5 new emergency water supply facilities, and finally through water quality testing and monitoring.

Réhabilitation d'une pompe manuelle, Kabar

Hand pump rehabilitation, Kabar (February 2015)
Photo : Staff National de TGH ©

Installation du premier système de traitement de l'eau en urgence, Morlanga

Installation of the first emergency water system, Morlanga (March 2015)
Photo : Staff National de TGH ©

  • Access to adequate sanitation will be carried out for 21,350 new IDPs, host populations and returnees in the areas targeted by the project.

60% of the sanitation gap will be filled through 2 activities: on the one hand, the construction of emergency multi-family latrines. More specifically, TGH will build 1,157 emergency latrines in areas where the sanitary risks are the highest. On the second hand, 60 communal hand washing facilities will be installed in public places such as market places, mosques, schools and community centers. Then, TGH will organize garbage cleaning campaigns at each location, managed by community members.

  • Basic hygiene promotion will be enhanced for 36,104 new IDPs, host populations and returnees in the areas targeted by the project.

The entire targeted population will be reached through the distribution of soaps and hygiene promotion activities. These will consist of focus group discussions on key hygiene practices and the training of 5 female hygiene promoters in each locality, who will organize 1 mass event per month in all the localities. Finally, TGH will organize the distribution of WASH items: each household will receive 5 pieces of soap per month during the three months of the project while vulnerable women identified by the IOM (International Organization for Migration) registration will receive hygiene kits and some NFIs kits.

Hygiene Promotion Mass event, Amar Jadeed (March 2015)

Hygiene Promotion Mass event, Amar Jadeed (March 2015)
Photo : TGH National Staff ©

Installation du premier système de traitement de l'eau en urgence, Morlanga

Soaps Distribution, Kabar (February 2015)
Photo : TGH National Staff ©

Supporting alternative income generating activities

The region of Central Darfur is historically an important place for honey production. The conflict and population movements that have been affecting Darfur since 2003, as well as deforestation and the lack of equipment modernization, greatly affected this production.

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 Area of expertise

Agro-Secu-Alimentaire

 Key figures

 Duration: 16 months 05/2013 - 08/2014
 Budget: €56,328

 Funding

Logo UNDP
  • Funding: UNDP (United Nations Development Programme)
  • Partners: Ministry of Agriculture and Animal Resources - National Research Centre Honey - University of Khartoum

TGH decided to intervene and support this income-generating activity.

Fairs bringing together producers are organized in order to support the marketing of honey, and the forming of cooperatives facilitates access to financial markets and services. New materials and equipment are provided, along with training and events organized in a center created specially to that end.

Towards an increased contribution of local markets for a more secure food situation for the population in Darfur

Several years of support to agricultural production through the provision of inputs allowed the restoration of food self-sufficiency of many households, and a significant reduction in the lean season.

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 Area of expertise

Agro-Secu-Alimentaire

 Key figures

 Beneficiaries: 93 000 people
 Duration: 16 months 01/2013 - 04/2014
 Budget: K€690

 Funding

Logo MAE Logo UNHCR Logo FAO Logo CERF
  • Main funding: CIAA
  • Co-funding: UNHCR, CERF, FAO (donations in kind)
  • Number of beneficiaries: 17, 000 families (93, 000 people)

However, many households remain in a precarious food situation and still need to be supported. Besides, the overall reduction of assistance provided to the populations in Darfur, especially the reduced support of the World Food Programme, implies maintaining well-targeted assistance. Our action anticipates further reduction in aid, and endorses the beginning of a sort of “normalization” of the situation of people, who, although they have been displaced, were able to restore access to land and to income generating activities. It will allow the provision of inputs through the organizing of fairs during which beneficiary families can exchange the vouchers they have received against tools and seeds from local suppliers. In addition to boosting various productions, the expected impact is to increase the cash capacity of local merchants, thus allowing a better supply of markets, and moderating the inflation affecting foodstuffs during the rainy season. Trade links are also expected to be developed, to allow in fine a sustainable increase in agricultural land and production, in full independence of foreign aid.  

In addition to basic food production, our action also plans to support various alternative food productions, such as beekeeping and poultry farming.

Contexte général

Plusieurs années après son début, la crise du Darfour demeure aujourd'hui irrésolue, et une solution rapide et définitive n'apparait pas aujourd'hui comme une perspective crédible. Les accords de Doha signés en juillet 2011 ont échoué à emporter l'adhésion des principaux groupes politico-militaires en présence – désormais regroupés sous l'acronyme SRF (Sudan Revolutionary Front), et n'ont été paraphés à ce jour que par un groupe relativement marginal. L'autorité régionale du Darfour (DRA) tarde à être pleinement opérationnelle, et souffre de ce fait d'un manque de légitimité auprès des parties en présence.
Si l'échelle et l'intensité des violences et leurs conséquences humanitaires sont loin d'avoir l'ampleur qu'elle ont connu en 2003-2004, des affrontements réguliers entre les factions non-signataires des accords de Doha et les forces armées soudanaises demeurent observés, et semblent même s'être accrus depuis le début de l'année 2012. Des affrontements interethniques (entre tribus arabes) sont eux aussi à déplorer. Par ailleurs, La détérioration générale du contexte socio-économique soudanais qui a suivi l'indépendance du Sud-Soudan et la perte de revenus qu'elle a engendrée, combinée au regain de tensions politiques liées à de nouvelles zones de conflit (Sud Kordofan et Nil Bleu), ne favorise ni la capacité des populations du Darfour à restaurer leurs mécanismes de vie, ni celle des parties en présence à œuvrer de manière apaisée pour une solution acceptée de tous.
Ce contexte ne parait pas favorable à un retour rapide et massif des personnes déplacées internes (PDI) sur leurs lieux de vie d'origine. D'après les derniers chiffres fournis par UNOCHA, ce sont aujourd'hui toujours près de 1,7 million de personnes qui vivraient dans les rassemblements de déplacés, qu'il s'agisse de camps stricto sensu ou de villages préexistants où les déplacés avaient trouvé refuge. Durant les deux dernières années, moins de 10% des PDI (ou environ 165 000 personnes) seraient retournées chez eux, et la persistance d'affrontements localisés a par ailleurs engendré de nouvelles vagues de déplacements. Si les besoins humanitaires n'ont plus l'acuité qu'ils avaient durant les premières années de la crise, les populations demeurent fragiles et vulnérables aux chocs externes, à défaut d'avoir suffisamment recouvré leurs capacités de résilience.

Pourtant, en dépit de ce constat peu optimiste, il serait inexact de dire que la situation qui prévaut aujourd'hui au Darfour n'appelle pas des ajustements de l'approche jusqu'ici adoptée par les acteurs de l'aide. Du point de vue politique d'abord, si les accords de Doha n'ont pas suscité l'adhésion souhaitée, ils ont le mérite d'exister et d'offrir un potentiel modèle de sortie de crise qui jusqu'ici manquait, et qui matérialise une approche nouvelle de la communauté internationale dont les parties non-signataires des accords peuvent aussi attendre un soutien moins inconditionnel et par là un encouragement à adopter des positions plus ouvertes. Sur le plan humanitaire, plusieurs années d'aide ont permis à beaucoup de familles de recouvrer un niveau de vie comparable à leur niveau de vie antérieur, quant par ailleurs le phénomène de déplacement peut certainement dans beaucoup de cas être désormais requalifié en phénomène de migration.

Ainsi, si la situation qui prévaut au Darfour, au regard d'un contexte encore instable et fragile, ne saurait être considérée comme relevant du seul développement, elle ne relève plus non plus de l'urgence humanitaire et appelle plus volontiers des activités de « relèvement précoce », favorisant tout à la fois la prise en compte des besoins immédiats des plus vulnérables et la restauration des capacités de résilience des communautés.

Analyse des besoins

Une autosuffisance alimentaire partiellement recouvrée

Plusieurs années successives de soutien à la production alimentaire, combinées à la relative stabilisation des populations – fussent-elles déplacées, ont permis qu'aujourd'hui un nombre très significatif de familles se trouvent en situation d'autosuffisance alimentaire théorique. Les chiffres de la production céréalière dans les zones ciblées1, une fois convertis en équivalent par personne et par jour selon les recommandations du PAM (ou 400 grammes de céréales par jour et capita) montrent à cet égard que plus de 42% des fermiers ont produit suffisamment de grains pour couvrir les besoins de leur famille.

Graphique1

Bien entendu, ce constat est à nuancer. D'une part, celles des familles n'ayant pas produit l'équivalent d'un minimum de 12 mois de consommation domestique ne doivent pas pour autant être mécaniquement considérées comme en situation d'insécurité alimentaire, dans la mesure où elles peuvent avoir recouru à des activités et productions complémentaires non prises en compte ici. Par ailleurs et à l'inverse, le chiffre de 42% ne reflète pas les disparités selon la zone considérée : il n'est plus que de 35% si l'on prend en compte la seule région de Geneina.

Graphique2

En dépit de ces nuances, les chiffres issus des enquêtes quant à la production de cette année valident à-postériori, s'il était besoin, la pertinence du soutien apporté jusqu'ici aux fermiers vers la progressive restauration de leurs moyens de production. Ils montrent par ailleurs que la contribution spécifique de l'aide extérieure à l'autosuffisance alimentaire reste significative, puisqu'elle représente cette année encore un minimum de deux mois de consommation familiale pour plus de 32% des familles :

Graphique3

Ici encore, cet indicateur se décline différemment selon la zone considérée, puisqu'il atteint 39,6% à Bindizi, mais seulement 10,2% dans le cas de Geneina :

Graphique4

S'il y a là un premier indice de la nécessité d'une aide désormais plus ciblée, cet indicateur montre le caractère tangible de l'impact des activités de soutien agricole sur la sécurité almentaire dans les zones cibles. Néanmoins, les mêmes chiffres mettent aussi en évidence la fragilité d'un grand nombre de ménages – 57% - dont la production demeure insuffisante pour couvrir les besoins alimentaires familiaux. Aujourd'hui soutenus par le PAM pour un bon nombre d'entre eux, l'annonce de la fin de l'aide alimentaire directe induit le besoin d'un soutien spécifique à ces fermiers.

Des capacités de résilience encore fragiles

La production alimentaire au Darfour, réalisée pour l'essentiel en saison pluviale, est encore très dépendante de facteurs non maîtrisables, au premier rang desquels la pluviométrie. Celle-ci, exceptionnellement bonne cette année, contribue à expliquer des résultats positifs qu'une saison plus pauvre en précipitations pourrait remettre en cause.

Graphique5

Par ailleurs, l'analyse des données montre que la disponibilité alimentaire telle qu'évoquée plus haut demeure théorique, et qu'elle doit être pondérée par l'utilisation qui est faite des denrées produites : une partie est destinée aux semis de la saison à venir (jusqu'à 40% des semences plantées proviennent des réserves des fermiers), mais surtout vendue dès après les récoltes pour couvrir différents besoins, en particulier alimentaires :

Graphique6 Graphique7

Ainsi, la sécurité alimentaire demeure fragile même lorsqu'elle est théoriquement acquise, tant dû aux aléas auxquels sont soumises les productions, qu'en raison des tensions qui s'exercent sur celles-ci au moment des récoltes (nécessité de vente pour répondre aux besoins en numéraire) ou lorsqu'elles sont stockées (besoins en semis pour l'annèe à venir).

Cette relative fragilité de la situation des ménages est aujourd'hui à peine mitigée par les marchés locaux (en particulier les plus isolés), eux-mêmes exposés à des facteurs externes qui en appauvrissent l'accès pour les ménages comme l'accessibilité des produits, en particulier durant la saison des pluies (c'est-à-dire durant la période de soudure alimentaire), où les denrées sont rares et chères. Cette pauvre capacité des marchés à offrir aux ménages des solutions alternatives durant la période de soudure vont par ailleurs elles-mêmes se trouver appauvries par l'arrêt des distributions alimentaires du PAM, dont nombre de denrées étaient revendues par les bénéficiaires cherchant une réponse mieux ajustée à leurs besoins spécifiques, alimentant et soutenant ainsi les marchés locaux.
Ainsi, les acquis des productions agricoles de ces dernières années sont-ils encore insuffisants pour considérer la que la sécurité alimentaire est désormais durablement installée pour une grande part des ménages, qui demeurent exposés à d'importantes contraintes structurelles. En tenant compte du recours à la vente d'une partie des productions pour couvrir les besoins en numéraire, mais également eu égard à la persistance de chocs ponctuels fragilisant encore la sécurité alimentaire des familles, on considérera ici que seules les familles ayant produit l'équivalent d'au minimum 15 mois de leur consommation, soit 31,7% de la population considérée (28,5% à Bindizi, 24% à Geneina et 42% à Um Dukhun) ont acquis des capacités de résilience suffisante.

Persistance de facteurs externes défavorables

Comme évoqué plus haut, outre les phénomènes récurrents qui fragilisent la sécurité alimentaire des ménages (aléas climatiques, pauvreté des marchés et inflation saisonnière), les populations demeurent exposées à différents facteurs externes qui ne peuvent être anticipés. Il en va ainsi des phénomènes climatiques exceptionnels tels les crues, qui chaque année affectent les cultures d'un nombre variable de fermiers.
Plus récemment, la crise économique qui a frappé le Soudan et sa monnaie ont entraîné une importante inflation générale – d'environ 35% sur une base annuelle pour ce qui concerne la région ciblée, d'après le Central Bureau of Statistics dont on devine aisément la propension à en sous-estimer l'ampleur. Cette hausse des prix n'a bien entendu pas épargné les produits alimentaires, qui restent le premier poste de dépenses des ménages, comme le démontrent les quelques exemples ci-dessous:

graphique8 graphique9

graphique10 graphique11

Ces exemples, choisis pour leur représentativité (le mil constituant l'un des aliments de base, le sucre et l'huile étant des denrées complémentaires essentielles dans l'alimentation soudanaise, la viande étant l'un des ingrédients enrichissant le régime de base), font apparaître localement quelques nuances essentiellement liées au rythme des approvisionnements des marchés. Surtout, ils démontrent d'une part le caractère récurrent de l'augmentation saisonnière (saison des pluies) des prix, et d'autre part l'impact de l'inflation liée à la crise économique sur les prix des denrées alimentaires. En effet, si les prix repartent à la baisse dès la fin de celle-ci, on observe qu'ils ne retrouvent pas le niveau qu'ils avaient avant la dévaluation de la monnaie soudanaise, et entament de se stabiliser à des niveaux très supérieurs – de 25 à 100% selon les zones et produits considérés.

Ce phénomène trouve une traduction immédiate dans l'évolution du budget des ménages consacré aux dépenses alimentaires :

Graphique12

Le graphique ci-dessus, qui montre par ailleurs l'influence qu'ont les distributions du PAM sur le niveau de dépenses alimentaires (le pourcentage de bénéficiaires du PAM étant plus important à Bindizi qu'à Um Dukhun, et nul dans la région nord de Geneina), illustre que les familles ont du augmenter significativement leurs dépenses en denrées alimentaires ; s'il illustre aussi qu'elles ont eu la capacité de le faire – et donc avaient recouvré certaines capacités de résilience, ce constat est, ici encore, à nuancer : d'une part, parce que les chiffres évoqués ci-dessus sont des moyennes, d'autre part parce que l'augmentation du niveau des dépenses alimentaires ne suffit pas à démontrer que l'augmentation des dépenses n'aurait pas eu d'impact sur la consommation alimentaire. Au contraire, les personnes interviewées font état de conséquences claires et sévères sur le régime de leur foyer :

Graphique13

On le voit, malgré les améliorations réelles et tangibles que le soutien à la production agricole a permises, l'aide extérieure demeure hautement pertinente, même si elle doit prendre des formes nouvelles, répondant non plus au seul risque d'insécurité alimentaire immédiate – qui concerne désormais un nombre plus limité de ménages, mais surtout au besoin d'une meilleure structuration des filières et d'une capacité accrue des marchés locaux à la fois à répondre aux besoins alimentaires des ménages et à soutenir leurs productions.

Axes d'intervention requis

Au regard dés différents éléments évoqués ci-dessus, une approche pertinente consisterait à :

  • A la marge, soutenir les plus vulnérables des familles via la fourniture de denrées alimentaires de base, de sorte à pallier tant la hausse du prix des denrées que l'arrêt annoncé des distributions du PAM, mais aussi de sécuriser la bonne utilisation des semences fournies par ailleurs en évitant que celles-ci soient consommées.
  • Poursuivre le soutien à la production agricole des familles encore fragilisées - et identifiées comme telles via des critères précis, via la fourniture de semences en quantité suffisante pour permettre tant la sécurité alimentaire des personnes ciblées que le renforcement durable de leurs capacités économiques.
  • Adapter les modalités de fourniture des intrants en recourant à la distribution de coupons et à l'organisation de foires, de sorte à favoriser le renforcement des marchés via la création progressive de liens commerciaux durables, comme au travers de l'augmentation des capacités de trésorerie des marchands locaux permettant la constitution de stocks alimentaires plus importants en vue de la rupture saisonnière des approvisionnements, source récurrente d'inflation.
  • Contribuer à la diversification des activités de production alimentaire, et en particulier poursuivre la promotion et le développement du maraîchage, de sorte à diminuer la dépendance des ménages à la seule saison agricole pluviale, à favoriser l'accessibilité de produits alimentaires plus variés, et à permettre la génération de revenus.

1Données issues de l'enquête pré-récoltes de TGH, novembre 2012.

Assistance to vulnerable communities in Darfur

Since the start of its operations, TGH has acted significantly in the areas of water, hygiene and sanitation.
However, natural disasters and frequent displacements deeply impact populations, while international aid is decreasing.

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 Area of expertise

Wash Agro-Secu-Alimentaire Psycho-Social

 Key figures

 Beneficiaries: 108 566 people
 Duration: 13 months 05/2013 - 06/2014
 Budget: €650,000

 Funding

Logo ECHO
  • Funding: ECHO (The Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection department of the European Commission)

In this context, TGH continues its work in Darfur while adapting its strategy to increase the involvement of communities and local authorities and to improve their ability to adapt and respond to WHS needs.

This programme aims to identify the main risks, to provide a humanitarian response when these risks materialize, and to intervene with humanitarian agencies to encourage a stronger presence among these populations.

The main objective, however, is to involve the communities and authorities at every stage of action, from the preparation to natural hazards and the implementation of contingency plans to the maintenance of equipment put in place, through training, information and monitoring, so that they are fully involved in the WHS sector.

Supporting the restoration and maintenance of livelihoods and food security of vulnerable households in South Darfur

Objectives:

- Improve agricultural production and food security...
- Measure changes in agricultural production,...

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 Area of expertise

Agro-Secu-Alimentaire

 Key figures

 Duration: 7 months 05/2013 - 12/2013
 Budget: € 138,061

 Funding

Logo FAO
  • Funding: FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)

Objectives:

  • Improve agricultural production and food security of vulnerable populations through the distribution of inputs in the form of coupons and organize training and awareness sessions for farmers
  • Measure changes in agricultural production, follow up market prices and precipitation

Protection and assistance to refugees from Darfur

Objectives:

- Strengthen the livelihoods of IDPs by supporting breeding activities
- Support agriculture through input distribution
- Support income-generating activities through the promotion of beekeeping
- Ensure coordination of humanitarian information...

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 Area of expertise

Agro-Secu-Alimentaire

 Key figures

 Duration: 11 months 02/2013 - 12/2013
 Budget: €267,000

 Funding

Logo UNHCR
  • Funding: UNHCR (United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees)

Objectives:

  • Strengthen the livelihoods of IDPs by supporting breeding activities
  • Support agriculture through input distribution
  • Support income-generating activities through the promotion of beekeeping
  • Ensure coordination of humanitarian information and protection of displaced populations through the monitoring of populations and the evaluation of their needs

Emergency assistance to vulnerable populations

This programme aims to reduce mortality and morbidity among the most vulnerable populations through integrated support.

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 Area of expertise

Wash

 Key figures

 Beneficiaries: 126.687 people
 Duration: 16 months 01/2012 - 04/2013
 Budget: €1.462.000

 Funding

Logo ECHO Logo CHF
  • Funding: ECHO (Humanitarian Aid Department of the European Commission)
    CHF (United Nations Common Humanitarian Fund)
  • Number of beneficiaries: 126, 687, including 20, 415 vulnerable people (physical handicap, mental disability, extreme poverty, isolation) – 158 local staff
  • Partners: HAC (Humanitarian Aid Commission, Sudan) – Ministry of environment (WES Sudan) – UNICEF - UNOPS (United Nations Office for Project Services) - Al Fajir (Sudanese NGO)

Drinking water supply, access to sanitation facilities (latrines, water points), waste collection and processing and hygiene promotion are crucial in controlling the main vectors of health risks. A sudden stop of the mechanisms currently in place would lead to a rapid deterioration in the overall health situation in the region. A transitional phase towards a greater involvement of local populations and authorities is needed, as well as the monitoring of population movements and the distribution of non-food emergency aid.

Access to drinking water and involvement of concerned partners:

  • Construction of new water points (water towers, hand pumps) in order to provide beneficiaries with access to sufficient water supplies;
  • Maintenance/rehabilitation of the installations;
  • Regular tests on water quality (microbiological and chemical testing) and sharing of results with health services and other institutional actors involved;
  • Regular and continuous interventions with local institutional actors to add to their responsibilities and increase their participation in water management;
  • Follow-up and continuous training of local committees in charge of the management of water points in order to ensure the sustainability of infrastructures built.

Limitation of major health risks in densely populated areas:

  • Construction/rehabilitation/maintenance of latrines with the help of beneficiaries;
  • Needs assessment through ad-hoc surveys and the ongoing monitoring of the situation with regard to access to sanitation;
  • Testing of a new model of more sustainable latrines;
  • Gradual hand-over of waste collection activities to local actors.

Improvement of the population’s knowledge on good hygiene practices

  • Awareness campaigns about good health practices (cleaning of canisters, waste collection, etc.);
  • Organization of social events on issues related to health and hygiene;
  • Facilitating the creation and organization of hygiene clubs in schools;
  • Trainers training in order to facilitate the transmission of messages within the community;
  • Assessment surveys on the impact of hygiene promoting activities.

Coordination of the development of the humanitarian situation with actors involved and distribution of bare necessities to the most vulnerable populations and to newcomers:

  • Monitoring of population movements in intervention areas, regular reporting to relevant agencies;
  • Conducting studies to address rapidly the essential needs of newcomers;
  • Distribution of non-food aid (blankets, plastic mats, kitchen sets, clothing, etc.) to newcomers, to the most vulnerable populations, or even to the entire population in case of emergency situation (fire, flood, etc.);
  • Maintenance of an emergency stock (non-food items, materials and equipment needed for the construction of water points and latrines) to be able to meet the basic needs of newcomers.

Supporting food security and resilience capacity of populations affected by the conflict in Darfur

In Darfur, eight years after the beginning of the conflict, the crisis is still unsolved. The ongoing fights – especially in the Djebel Marra region and along the ever-moving frontline between al-Daein (South Darfur) and Shangil Tobaya or Dar al-Salam (North Darfur)...

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 Area of expertise

Agro-Secu-Alimentaire

 Key figures

 Duration: 12 months 01/2012 - 12/2012
 Budget: €833.161

 Funding

Logo MAE Logo UNHCR
  • Funding: CIAA (60%) - UNHCR (40%)

In Darfur, eight years after the beginning of the conflict, the crisis is still unsolved. The ongoing fights – especially in the Djebel Marra region and along the ever-moving frontline between al-Daein (South Darfur) and Shangil Tobaya or Dar al-Salam (North Darfur)- and the absence of political solution take away any hope of return from nearly two million displaced people. These populations are thus kept in a state of need requiring continued provision of essential services. Eight years of crisis, however, enabled the beneficiaries to develop various coping mechanisms, which, eventhough they are unevenly and diversely distributed, advocate a new approach to aid, involving a greater involvement of various local actors and ensuring better durability of the services provided, especially for long-term displaced persons – the newly displaced or returned people needing to remain eligible for a more purely humanitarian or emergency assistance.

Since the beginning of 2011, the normalization of the relations between Sudan and Chad has enabled the establishment of a joint Sudano-Chadian force along the border, having a positive effect on reducing the presence of rebel groups in this area, thus mitigating the risks taken during field visits. Local TGH teams of agronomists have regained access to rural areas and are able to update the list of beneficiaries through field surveys, to organize direct distributions   (« hand-to-hand ») without any intermediary, and to conduct surveys before and after crop harvest.

This program allows TGH to intervene in several areas: protection and agriculture. Support to agricultural production is indeed essential in Darfur, where almost all the families are involved in agriculture which remains their main source of income and assets. In this context, it is vital to support local capacity for resilience, in order to enable aid recipients to make a concrete and material contribution to the project, and to ensure their food security beyong the assistance provided, which is currently decreasing.

TGH teams distribute various agricultural inputs throughout the year, according to the season and to the needs identified during the survey process: cereal seeds (millet and sorghum) and tools (plows) before the rainy season, vegetable seeds (onions, tomatoes, melons, cucumbers, combos, radishes...) before the winter season. These distributions are carried-out with the participation of non-institutional local partners (traditional leaders, local committees, communities), ensuring the link with beneficiary populations and the security on distribution sites. Meanwhile, lobbying activities are organized in partnership with the Ministry of Agriculture and the Department of Humanitarian Affairs in order to encourage local institutional actors to take part in the activities.

TGH teams set up and provide training courses to some of the farmers benefiting from the distributions, in order to specify the use of seeds and tools and the best growing conditions (how to use a motor pump or a foot pump, how to prepare the land, how to prepare compost...). During the cultivation period, and according to the needs identified, training sessions are organized in the villages (how to fight against insects, how to improve the yield in onion production, how to make compost...).

Throughout the year, the various surveys conducted by TGH teams offer a clear picture of the state of agricultural production, food security and availability/accessibility of food products at local farmers markets. These surveys also help checking the relevance of the activities, and allow their adaptation if necessary (updating of the list of the beneficiaries of the distributions, surveys before and after the harvests, monthly monitoring of price trends on local markets, information on rainfall in the various areas of operation…).

TGH also supports the beekeeping sector (Beekeepers Association of Bindizi, Beekeepers of Mukjar), via the distribution of shared equipment (hives, extractors, safety equipment), the establishment and securing of production and processing sites (delimitation and planning of common land use, improvement of the relations between farmers and beekeepers), the construction of a storage and selling area close to or on the farmers market, and the organizing of training courses on beekeeping techniques (use and making of modern and traditional beehives) and on the management of cooperatives (budget management, global management, associative management, marketing).

The evolution of the humanitarian situation is coodinated with the actors involved, and first necessity products are distributed to most vulnerable populations and to newcomers in the areas of operation (Bindizi and Um Dukhun) 

TGH is also responsible for the coordination with the identified actors of humanitarian assistance, and for responding to immediate or urgent needs in terms of non-food aid. The NGO therefore regularly issues reports on population displacements in intervention areas for the attention of relevant agencies, and conducts surveys in order to assess the humanitarian situation and the urgent needs of newcomers, in order to provide a rapid response to theur basic needs.

The teams must also be able to cope with emergency situations, whether to help newcomers or vulnerable populations, or to intervene in crisis situations (fires, floods…). An emergency stock is therefore maintained, consisting of non-food items and materials and equipment needed for the construction of water points and latrines.

Support to food security and to the populations' coping capacities

This project aims to overcome the dependence of rural populations on their seasonal activity (agricultural work often carried out on behalf of wealthy landowners). The target area is far away from major markets; therefore, the increase of local production will have a positive impact on populations.

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 Area of expertise

Agro-Secu-Alimentaire

 Key figures

 Beneficiaries: 35,000 people
 Duration: 7 months 11/2011 - 05/2012
 Budget: €250,000

 Funding

Logo MAE
  • Funding: CIAA (French Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs)
  • Beneficiaries: 35,000 people
  • Partners: Department of Horticulture of the Ministry of Agriculture in Gedaref State.

The state of Gedaref - like the two other states in eastern Sudan - has human development indicators ranking among the worst in Sudan. According to the Sudan Household Survey of 2006, only 37.3% of the population has access to "improved" water sources against an average of 56.1% in Sudan. Similarly, only 14.6% of the population has access to health facilities against a national average of 31.4%.

However, the number of international solidarity actors is extremely low in Gedaref; only one international NGO is operating and the presence of UN agencies is very limited.
The population of Gedaref is estimated at between 1.35 and 1.87 million people (1.35 in 2009 according to UNDP and 1.87 in 2011 according to UNICEF), and nearly 50% live below the poverty line , estimated at 114 SDG per person per month (UNOCHA figures, Workplan 2011).

Gedaref region is known as the "breadbasket" of Sudan. Indeed, the rich clay soil and heavy rains between June and September (500 to 900 mm in the villages in southern Gedaref during these four months) are very favorable factors for the growing of cereals (83% of sorghum, but also millet, sesame and sunflower), mainly produced under rainfed conditions. However, productivity is very low, due to unsuitable agricultural practices and to the lack of means implemented by the Ministry of Agriculture in order to train farmers. Thus, productivity is 100 kg of sorghum per feddan (= 0.42 ha), when it could easily reach 500 or 600 kg, considering the performance achieved in other regions. Similarly, the production of fruits and vegetables is very low, due to the misuse of water (no mastering of simple irrigation techniques), a lack of general knowledge, but also the mass involvement of farmers in cereal production, which has diverted them away from all the other productive activities.

Gedaref is also a breeding territory, with 5.2 million head of cattle (UNDP, 2009), cows, sheep, goats and camels. Gureisha is one of the 10 towns in Gedaref, populated by 83,394 people (according the 5th census of Sudan in 2008). Located at the eastern end of the state, this town ranks among the less provided with basic services, and is sealed off from the rest of the country during the rainy season because of the lack of passable roads. The choice of Gureisha has been confirmed by field visits conducted by TGH, but also by the recommendations of local authorities: the local representation of the HAC, the general manager of the Ministry of Agriculture as well as the general manager of the Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation were all favorable to the focusing of TGH’s activities on this locality, which they consider to be the poorest in the state of Gedaref.

Contribution to maintaining a direct response to the essential needs of vulnerable populations, while increasing the involvement of local populations and actors

This program aims to reduce mortality and morbidity among the most vulnerable populations through an integrated aid.

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 Area of expertise

Wash

 Key figures

 Beneficiaries: 126 687 people
 Duration: 16 months 01/2011 - 04/2012
 Budget: €1.580.000

 Funding

Commision Europeenne Logo CHF
  • Funding: ECHO (Humanitarian Aid Department of the European Commission) United Nations Common Humanitarian Fund
  • Number of beneficiaries: 126,687, including 20,415 vulnerable people (physical disability, mental deficiency, extreme poverty, isolation) – 200 local employees
  • Partners: HAC (Humanitarian Aid Commission, Sudan) - Ministry of environment (WES Sudan) – UNICEF - UNJLC (United Nations Joint Logistics Center) - Al Shoroog (Sudanese NGO)

The supply of drinking water, the access to sanitation (latrines, water points), the waste collection and processing and the promotion of hygiene are crucial in controlling the main vectors of health risks. A sudden stop of the mechanisms currently in place would lead to a rapid deterioration in the overall health situation in the region. A transitional phase towards a greater involvement of the local people and authorities is needed, as well as the monitoring of population movements and the distribution of non-food emergency aid.

Access to drinking water and involvement of concerned partners:

  • Construction of new water points (water towers, hand pumps, motor pumps, wells);
  • Maintenance / rehabilitation of the installations;
  • Regular tests on water quality (microbiological and chemical testing) and sharing of the results with health services and other concerned institutional actors;
  • Regular and continuous interventions with local institutions (WES...) and the local population to enhance their participation.

Limitation of major health risks in densely populated areas:

  • construction/rehabilitation/maintenance of latrines with the help of the beneficiaries;
  • Needs assessment through an annual survey and the ongoing monitoring of the state of the existing equipment;
  • Experimenting of a new design for more sustainable latrines;
  • Waste collection and treatment by the teams of TGH, in collaboration with local actors (local NGO, group of inhabitants), who will in the end entirely take over the dispositive.

Improvement of the population’s knowledge on good hygiene practices

  • Running of hygiene promotion sessions (hygiene promotion centers, schools, home visits, collective campaigns...) and development of training sessions for trainers in order to facilitate the transmission of these activities to the communities, local associations, teachers...
  • Assessment surveys on the impact of hygiene promoting activities.

Coordination of the development of the humanitarian situation with the concerned actors and distribution of bare necessities to the most vulnerable populations and to the newcomers:

  • monitoring of population displacements in the intervention areas, regular reports to relevant agencies;
  • conducting studies to respond quickly to the essential needs of newcomers;
  • Distribution of non-food items (blankets, plastic mats, kitchen sets, clothing ...) to the newcomers, to the most vulnerable populations, or to the entire population in case of emergency situation (fire, flood ...);
  • Maintaining an emergency stock (non-food products, materials and equipment needed for the construction of water points and latrines) in order to be able to meet the essential needs of newcomers.

Support to food security and to the populations' coping capacities

This program aims at strengthening populations' capacity to overcome the shocks related to the crisis and to the ongoing reduction of the assistance

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 Area of expertise

Psycho-Social Wash

 Key figures

 Beneficiaries: 160,433 people
 Duration: 12 months 01/2011 - 12/2011
 Budget: €714,941

 Funding

Logo MAE Logo UNHCR
  • Funding: CIAA (Inter-ministerial Food Aid Committee – French Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs)
    UNHCR (United Nations Refugee Agency)
  • Number of beneficiaries: 33, 028 families (representing 159, 633 people) – 600 pupils (educational activities ) – 200 local employees
  • Partners: HAC (Humanitarian Aid Commission, Sudan) – Ministry of Agriculture(Sudan) – FAO (United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization) - UNHCR (United Nations Refugee Agency - UNJLC (United Nations Joint Logistics Center) - Al Shoroog (Sudanese NGO) - Peace Committee, Bindizi (gathering of traditional local leaders) - Supporting Committee, Um Dukhun (gathering of traditional local leaders) - Department of the Ministry of Agriculture in Bindizi, Um Dukhun and Geneina

Support to local capacities of agricultural production in order to make food products available and accessible on local markets:

  • Distributions of agricultural inputs during the year, according to the season and to the needs pointed out in the surveys: cereal seeds (millet and sorghum) and tools (different types of hoes) before the rainy season, vegetable seeds (onions, tomatoes, melon, cucumbers, combos, radishes...) before the winter season, irrigation tools (foot or motor pumps) handed over to groups of vulnerable farmers identified earlier by TGH teams;
  • Organizing of a work of lobbying in order to encourage local institutional actors to participate in the activities (Ministry of Agriculture, and of Humanitarian Affairs);
  • Participation of non-institutional local partners (traditional leaders, local committees, communities) in the implementation of activities (creation of a link with the beneficiaries, and securing the places of distribution...).

Technical agricultural training:

  • Implementing training sessions for some of the beneficiary farmers;
  • Training session provided during the distribution of seeds and tools in order to specify their use and the best cultivation conditions (how to use a motor pump or a foot pump, how to prepare one’s land, how to prepare compost...);
  • Training sessions provided during the cultivation period: TGH teams follow the evolution of the crops and organize training sessions in the villages according to the needs detected (how to fight insects, how to improve the yield of an onion production, how to proceed to the maintenance of water pumps...). 

Surveys on agricultural production, food security and availability /accessibility of food products on local markets:

TGH carries out different surveys throughout the year in order to check the relevance of its activities and to adapt them when needed:

  • Updating at the beginning of the year 2011of the list of the beneficiaries of the distributions of seeds and tools;
    Pre and post-harvest annual surveys;
  • Monthly watch of the evolution of prices on local markets through surveys such as "food basket", and through prices taken down on the different markets in the areas of intervention;
  • Data collection on pluviometry in the different areas of intervention.

Increase in the number of classrooms in order to make access easier for a greater number of pupils living in the areas of intervention (Bindizi and Um Dukhun):

  • Construction of classrooms in order to ensure conditions adapted to the schooling of children;
  • Supply of diversified equipment (tables, benches, tablets for the pupils, desk and chair for the teacher).

Covering the Vital Needs of Populations Affected by the Humanitarian Crisis in Western Darfur

Objectives:

- Maintain and exploit TGH's ability to follow the evolution of humanitarian needs...
- Guarantee access to drinking water...
- Control main health risk vectors...
- Support local agricultural production capacities...

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 Area of expertise

Agro-Secu-Alimentaire Wash

 Key figures

 Duration: 9 months 06/2010 - 04/2011
 Budget: K€2,150

 Funding

Commision Europeenne Logo MAE Logo UNHCR Logo CHF
  • Funding: ECHO (European Commission Humanitarian Aid department)
    MAE (French Ministry of Foreign Affairs – Crisis cell)
    UNHCR (United Nations Refugee Agency)
    CHF (United Nations Common Humanitarian Fund)

Objectives:

  • Maintain and exploit TGH's ability to follow the evolution of humanitarian needs and cover primary needs that have re-appeared in areas of intervention – 62 905 beneficiaries;
  • Guarantee access to drinking water in sufficient quantity for the people in targeted areas – 74 905 beneficiaries;
  • Control main health risk vectors in areas of high population density – 71 905 beneficiaries;
  • Support local agricultural production capacities to improve the level of food security in areas of intervention – 36 930 beneficiaries.

Since the start of humanitarian intervention in the Darfur context, TGH has received the support of ECHO (European Commission Humanitarian Aid department). This support is crucial in order to achieve highly complicated operations – in terms of logistics and security – that are highly mobilising at staff level.
In Sudan, ECHO is therefore a major partner of our agency. Thanks to ECHO, TGH can operate projects funded by the European Commission, as well as run further activities funded by other funding agencies (the United Nations, for instance); activities that significantly widen the reach of our programmes but would not suffice to justify our presence in Sudan.

Back in June 2004, ECHO gave its support to TGH by funding our programme: Assistance to IDPs in Ryad Camp. Located on the outskirts of Geneina (capital of Western Darfur), the camp hosted over ten thousand people who had fled the fighting and exactions in neighbouring rural areas.
That first programme led to construction of shelters, latrines and showers, as well as implementation of a sanitation mechanism aimed at creating an acceptable sanitary environment and promoting hygiene in the camp. A potable water supply system was also built, providing water to Ryad and surrounding districts of Geneina.

When this programme was completed, and because of the necessity of maintaining services over time, ECHO renewed it trust in TGH and supported an extension of our activities in remote areas where humanitarian aid was less frequent.
In April 2005, TGH launched an integrated programme in Bindizi, including emergency actions such as water supply, construction of latrines and distribution of Non Food Items (jerricans, plastic sheeting, mosquito nets, etc). In 2006, once again backed by ECHO, TGH extended its operations to Um Dukhun.

Because agricultural activities imply that the IDPs leave the camps, thus exposing them to potential attacks, TGH's agricultural programmes included actions targeting the Arabic communities and displaying the neutrality that contributes to restoring a form of coexistence that was alive before the conflict. In 2005, ECHO's sponsorship, central to this programme, allowed TGH to support a “back to the land” process, maintaining traditional seasonal patterns over the three years that followed. The success of that agricultural campaign led TGH, once again sponsored by ECHO, to extend its agricultural actions to Mukjar and Um Dukhun camps, and bordering villages. In addition to large distributions of seed, TGH, performed livestock vaccination campaigns, construction of wells on grazing grounds and transhumance routes, and finally installation of a veterinary clinic in Bindizi.

At present, TGH's entire operation, supported by ECHO, has 180.000 beneficiaries.

The Darfur conflict continues. Its violence and the threat it represents for civil populations forces the displacement of many families, multiplying the camp population and preventing significant motions of return. The aid provided in the camps, along with the reactivity required to cover the needs of new arrivals, must be supported over time to prevent the situation's deterioration. While the conflict must be analysed with caution owing to its complexity and the divergence of interests and opinions raised by it, access to natural resources remains central to its continuance. Therefore, when working with the resident population, IDPs, nomads or semi-nomads one must carefully examine each micro-context to avoid sparking local conflict between the people living together in Darfur.
Through 2010, thanks to steady support from ECHO, TGH can continue its effort to provide potable water to IDPs and control major health risk vectors as well as monitoring and analysing the constant movements of population and supporting their agricultural production capacities.

The insecurity that rules in Darfur has progressively affected humanitarian organisations, with both the incidence and severity of events growing since 2006. TGH, along with most NGOs operating in Darfur, has adjusted its work methods to strengthen the protection of its teams and equipment. To avoid exposing expatriate teams to the major risk of being kidnapped, field work is increasing delegated to Sudanese members of staff, for whom the risk is less. The internal promotion and training process has therefore been reinforced since 2009, in the aim of preserving the programmes' quality while continuing the challenging task of providing essential services to the beneficiaries.

Assistance to Populations Affected by the Conflict in Darfur

Objectives:

- Maintain and develop TGH's capacity to cover the primary...
- Coordinate dynamic programs with our partners...
- Monitor and analyse the humanitarian situation (in real time)...
- Guarantee a sufficient amount of potable water...

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 Area of expertise

Agro-Secu-Alimentaire Wash

 Key figures

 Duration: 12 months 06/2009 - 05/2010
 Budget: K€1 612

 Funding

Commision Europeenne Logo MAE Logo UNHCR
  • Funding: ECHO (European Commission Humanitarian Aid Office),
    MAE (French Ministry of Foreign Affairs),
    UNHCR (UN Refugees Agency)

Objectives:

  • Maintain and develop TGH’s capacity to cover the primary needs that have recently appeared in the areas where we are operating
  • Coordinate dynamic programs with our partners (other NGOs in the field, local authorities, United Nations agencies, funding agencies, etc.)
  • Monitor and analyse the humanitarian situation (in real time) in the most precarious areas.
  • Guarantee a sufficient amount of potable water to the people in target areas
  • Control the main vectors of sanitary risk in areas with a high concentration of people

From the start of the humanitarian intervention that followed the Darfour conflict, ECHO (European Commission Humanitarian Aid department) gave its support to TGH. Its support remains essential to achieve missions that are extremely complicated in terms of logistics and security and that require intense mobilization of human resources.

In Sudan, ECHO is therefore our major partner. Thanks to ECHO, together with the activities that it directly funds, TGH can also run programs funded by other agencies such as the United Nations; programs that would not suffice to maintain our presence in Darfour.

As early as June 2004, ECHO supported TGH by funding an aid program to IDPs in Ryad. In this camp, located on the outskirts of Geneina, 10.000 people had taken refuge from the fighting and exactions.
That first program built shelters, latrines, showers and other facilities providing an acceptable sanitary environment. It included hygiene awareness schemes. A potable water network was also created, supplying water to the camp and to areas on the borders of Geneina.

Following this program, and because it is necessary to preserve such services for the population, ECHO renewed its trust in TGH and funded an extension of our activities in more remote areas where humanitarian action was rare.

In April 2005, TGH launched an integrated program in Bindizi featuring “emergency relief”:  supply of water, construction of latrines, distribution of non-food goods (jerry-cans, plastic tarpaulins, mosquito nets, etc). Following the implementation of 1st aid, and with ECHO’s help again, TGH extended its activities to Um Dukhun, in 2006. Today, the sum of TGH’s operations, supported by ECHO, assists over 150.000 beneficiaries.

The Darfour conflict is still running: its degree of violence and the threats that it represents for the civil population is forcing many families to flee their villages, thus multiplying the population in the camps and hindering significant movements of return. The help provided in the camps and the reactivity required to cover the needs of new IDPS demands support over time. Without such support, the situation will degenerate further. Thanks to ECHO's backing, TGH can continue its efforts to provide drinking water to displaced people, control the major vectors of sanitary risk, and follow and study the population’s permanent movements.

Improve food security for the population in Darfur

Objectives:

- Améliorer la production agricole des ménages peuplant les zones ciblées.
- Diffuser des connaissances techniques avancées aux agriculteurs et éleveurs.
- Soutenir à Bindizi le comité agricole qui appuie la résolution des conflits locaux liés à l'accès aux ressources naturelles.

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 Area of expertise

Agro-Secu-Alimentaire Wash

 Key figures

 Duration: 12 months 06/2009 - 05/2010
 Budget: K€1 037

 Funding

Commision Europeenne Logo MAE
  • Funding: ECHO (Service d'aide humanitaire de la Commission Européenne)
    MAE (Comité Interministériel pour l'Aide Alimentaire)

In April 2005, TGH launched an integrated program in Bindizi featuring “emergency relief”, and other actions in anticipation of the population's future needs, for instance actions to restore agricultural activities.

Such agricultural projects imply that IDPs leave the camp area and are exposed to potential attacks, therefore the agricultural program operates simultaneously with actions aimed at the Arabic communities. In this way, we display a neutral stance that contributes to restoring the coexistence that was alive before the conflict. Thanks to ECHO’s support, which is central in this programme, TGH can restore land work and contribute to preserving the traditional seasonal rhythms over the next three years.

Following the success of its first agricultural campaign, with ECHO's support, TGH extended its activities to Mukjar and Um Dukhun camps and adjacent villages. At present, the sum of operations implemented by TGH and supported by ECHO benefits over 180.000 people.

While the Darfour conflict requires cautious analysis owing to its complexity and the divergence of views explaining it, one point remains central : access to natural resources. Therefore, when working with the country’s resident, displaced, nomadic or semi-nomadic populations one must carefully analyse each micro-context to avoid firing further local conflict between the people co-existing in Darfour.

Together with seed distribution, TGH has achieved livestock vaccination campaigns, construction of water points in pastures and transhumant areas and, recently, a veterinarian clinic in Bindizi. In addition, ECHO's support to TGH, has allowed us to maintain an agricultural committee over 4 years. The committee's mission is to reduce and settle, when necessary, disputes between breeders and farmers in Bindizi. Although the committee is currently threatened by its members’ divergence of political views, it should allow the communities to consensually share farming and pasture land, thus fostering peaceful coexistence and improved livelihoods.

In 2009, TGH continues its agricultural programmes to support the agricultural production level. This guarantees a satisfying level of food security and autonomy for families living in the target areas.

Towards Improved Food Security & Economic Revival: Reduce the Impact of Crisis & Prepare Conditions for Future Development in Darfur

This pilot project that concerns the region of wadi Saleh (West Darfur) is aimed at consolidating the achievements of previous programmes in the region, particularly in the agricultural area.

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 Area of expertise

Agro-Secu-Alimentaire

 Key figures

 Duration: 24 months 11/2008 - 11/2010
 Budget: K€965

 Funding

Logo EuropeAid-Union-Europeenne
  • Funding: EuropeAID, plus Co-funder to identify

Although the situation in Darfur remains highly troubled and still forbids true development programmes, the results of our programmes dedicated to agricultural support allow us to implement, in the region targeted, activities that go beyond the strict framework of emergency relief and lead to greater autonomy in terms of economic and food safety.

The project's objectives are:

  • Contribute to increased and diversified food production (vegetables and animals),
  • Help to maintain the level of production achieved by reducing external introduction of agricultural inputs,
  • Encourage and support local initiatives regards transformation and commercialisation of food productions,
  • Encourage and support local collective, community and private (coops, for instance) initiatives
  • Continue to support the local committee for conflict management,
  • Facilitate the participation of local technical ministries in the project's activities.

For reasons linked to the safety of its teams (almost impossible to access the rural zones targeted by the program), TGH and the European Commission chose to abandon this project in January 2010.

Assistance to Populations Affected by the Conflict in Darfur

Objectives:

  • Guarantee potable water to the people ...
  • Maintain and develop access to potable water...
  • Maintain facilities providing water for people ...
  • Rehabilitate latrines...
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 Area of expertise

Agro-Secu-Alimentaire Wash

 Key figures

 Duration: 12 months 06/2008 - 06/2009
 Budget: K€1 100

 Funding

Logo ECHO Logo MAE Logo UNHCR
  • Funding: ECHO (Service d'aide humanitaire de la Commission Européenne)
    MAE (Ministère Français des Affaires Etrangères – Centre de crise)
    UNHCR (Haut Commissariat aux réfugiés)

Objectives:

  • Guarantee potable water to the people in Ryad and Bindizi camps
  • Maintain and develop access to potable water for the rural populations of Bindizi and Um Dukhun regions
  • Maintain facilities providing water for people forced to further displacement in the project's sites
  • Rehabilitate latrines according to needs and build new units whenever necessary
  • Contribute to an acceptable sanitary environment by collecting waste, treating stagnant waters and implementing appropriate facilities in sensitive places (markets, animal slaughter sites, etc.)
  • Promote adequate hygiene practices through awareness and education activities
  • Ensure distribution of basic non-food necessities
  • Participate in monitoring the population's movements and ensure nobody is excluded from the relief plan, particularly in terms of food aid.

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Towards Improved Food Safety and Heightened Autonomy for Populations in West Darfur

Objectives:

  • Enable maintenance and development...
  • Provide an adequate supply...
  • Provide constant technical...
  • Support and develop the local initiatives...
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 Area of expertise

Agro-Secu-Alimentaire Wash

 Key figures

 Duration: 12 months 06/2008 - 06/2009
 Budget: K€1 400

 Funding

Logo ECHO Logo MAE
  • Funding: ECHO (European Commission Humanitarian Aid Office)
    MAE (French Ministry of Foreign Affairs)

Objectives:

  • Enable maintenance and development of farming produce during the rainy and dry seasons (irrigated agriculture)
  • Provide an adequate supply of farm inputs to 32,600 families in Geneina, Bindizi, Mukjar and Um Dukhun regions
  • Provide constant technical support to the farmers targeted by the project, on site, and through specific training courses
  • Support and develop the local initiatives of small producers (beekeepers, poultry farmers, etc.)
  • Support and develop local committees for management of conflicts related to agricultural land (Bindizi) and to issues linked to natural resources management (Um Dukhun)
  • Provide 4500 families who are nomadic or semi-nomadic breeders and 4000 small livestock farmers with appropriate access to veterinarian services
  • Construction of “hafirs”, e.g. rainwater storage structures, for livestock consumption.

Darfur : Sad birthday

The Darfur crisis entered its sixth year. At First almost ignored, it benefits today from a large coverage by Medias, and even became of source of disputes.
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 Area of expertise

Agro-Secu-Alimentaire Wash

 Key figures


 Beneficiaries:
4 million people affected by the humanitarian aid to Darfur

Assistance to Populations Affected by the Conflict in West Darfur

Over the past few months, the political situation in Darfur has shown little sign of improvement and has even deteriorated.

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 Area of expertise

Wash

 Key figures

 Duration: 12 months 06/2007 - 05/2008
 Budget: K€1 800

 Funding

Logo MAE Logo ECHO Logo UNHCR Logo FAO Logo FDF
  • Funding: (European Commission Humanitarian Aid Office),
    MAE (French Ministry of Foreign Affairs),
    UNHCR (UN Refugees Agency),
    FAO (UN Food and Agriculture Organization),
    Fondation de France

Despite heightened insecurity, TGH continues contributing to humanitarian relief in Darfur where aid is increasingly needed: previously implemented programmes require continuity and heightened displacement have caused a wave of new arrivals in the camps, particularly in Um Dukhun.

This new programme is therefore an extension of our initial project, launched in June 2004, and a new development aimed at helping newly arrived people in camps where TGH works.

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Assistance to Populations Affected by the Conflict in West Darfur

Launched in June 2004, our action in Darfur continues…

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 Area of expertise

Wash

 Key figures

 Duration: 10 months 08/2006 - 05/2007
 Budget: K€1,200

 Funding

Logo MAE Logo ECHO Logo UNHCR Logo FAO
  • Funding: MAE (French Ministry of Foreign Affairs)
    ECHO (Humanitarian Aid Department of the European Commission)
    UNHCR (UN Refugees Agency)
    FAO (UN Food and Agriculture Organization)

As well as water supply and sanitary improvement, this new phase extends agricultural activities in the Mukjar and Um Dukhun regions, a rural zone of West Darfur, and in rural areas of Geneina.

Our action also includes an “immediate relief” section dedicated to people arriving from Chad and the Central African Republic. Fleeing their home regions because of troubles directly related to the Darfur war, these refugees are now in Um Dukhun.

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Assistance to Displaced Populations in Ryad Camp, El Geneina, West Darfur

This programme, TGH's first in Sudan, provided comprehensive aid to internally displaced people in Ryad Camp (the town of Geneina). We built refuges, latrines and shower spaces; implemented a potable water system, collected garbage and managed the overall coordination of the camp.

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 Area of expertise

Wash

 Key figures

 Duration: 7 months 06/2004 - 12/2004
 Budget: K€340

 Funding

DAH Logo ECHO UNICEF
  • Funding: DAH - French Ministry of Foreign Affairs
    ECHO (European Commission Humanitarian Aid Office)
    UNICEF (United Nations Children's Fund)
    Saudi Red Crescent

Having completed the first general stages of camp organisation, TGH continued working on water and sanitisation, including maintenance and operation works.

Assistance to Populations affected by the Conflict in Bindizi, Wadi Saleh, West Darfur

In April 2005, TGH started working in Bindizi, an isolated, forgotten area of West Darfur. We decided to work in several domains:

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 Area of expertise

Agro-Secu-Alimentaire Wash

 Key figures

 Duration: 7 months 04/2005 - 10/2005
 Budget: €410,000 + $234,000

 Funding

DAH Logo ECHO Logo UNHCR Logo FAO UNICEF
  • Funding: DAH (Delegation to Humanitarian Action – French Foreign Affairs)
    ECHO (Humanitarian Aid Department of the European Commission)
    UNICEF (United Nations Children Fund)
    UNHCR (UN Refugees Agency)
    FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)

food safety (re-cultivation of 3.000 hectares, distribution of equipment and intrants, training of trainers), water and sanitation (rehabilitation of wells, latrines, implementation of a potable water system, hygiene awareness), distribution of non-food items.

Through this project, TGH also worked on restoring and supporting the conditions of coexistence that had existed before the conflict, and prepared people to return to their villages of origin.

Assistance to Populations affected by the Conflict in West Darfur

This programme continued the activities undertaken in previous projects. We extended our agricultural activities to rural regions around Geneina and in the Mukjar and Um Dukhun regions in the very south of the country.

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 Area of expertise

Agro-Secu-Alimentaire

 Key figures

 Duration:9 months 11/2005 - 07/2006
 Budget: K€930

 Funding

DAH Logo ECHO Logo UNHCR Logo FAO UNICEF
  • Funding: DAH (Delegation to Humanitarian Action – French Foreign Affairs)
    ECHO (Humanitarian Aid Department of the European Commission)
    UNICEF (United Nations Children's Fund)
    UNHCR (UN Refugees Agency)
    FAO (UN Food and Agriculture Organization)

Improvement of Sanitary Conditions in Displaced Peoples Camps in Greater Khartoum

This programme consisted in building 2000 family latrines. The beneficiaries were people from South Sudan who, trying to escape the North-South conflict, had settled in camps around Khartoum.

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 Area of expertise

Wash

 Key figures

 Duration: 12 months 01/2006 - 12/2006
 Budget: K€240

 Funding

Logo ECHO
  • Funding: ECHO (Humanitarian Aid Department of the European Commission)

The programme was partly aimed at softening the government's « planning » process, a ground occupation scheme that resulted in the destruction of many houses and refuges built spontaneously by the displaced.

Last updated December 28, 2016